Europe is working with Britain to manufacture the first spacecraft that will capture defunct satellites from orbit around Earth.
FREMONT, CA: Europe has started planning on a mission to clean Low Earth Orbit in response to satellite constellations clogging Earth's orbit and debris from these spacecraft distorting the view of the universe (LEO). The first commercial servicer prototype is being created by the European Space Agency (ESA) and servicing firm Astroscale to capture numerous dead satellites in low Earth orbit. To offer customers in remote areas global satellite internet broadband services, businesses are launching constellations of hundreds of communications satellites. It now has 428 satellites orbiting at a height of 1200 kilometres. Nearly 650 satellites will make up the constellation once it is complete. To prevent collisions in the future, these communication satellites must be removed from their orbits once their life expectancy has expired. End-of-life OneWeb satellites have two options for being removed from their orbits after their anticipated five to six years of operation. Every satellite has enough fuel to actively deorbit when its useful life is up. However, each satellite has a magnetic or grappling hook that can be used by a service spacecraft to actively deorbit it in the event of a breakdown.
Up to 900,000 bits of space trash from one to 10 centimetres in size are now drifting in space, along with more than 3,000 dead satellites and rocket stages, all of which pose a risk of collision and could interfere with ongoing missions. The number of in-space collisions is likely to climb as space traffic increases, according to the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). Even a small piece of space trash travelling at 40,000 kilometres per hour around the Earth may seriously harm an operational satellite, according to the European Space Agency's Space Debris Office. Throughout the ensuing decades, fragment collisions may render some reaches of space inaccessible to space travel. Junk might also interfere with missions to the moon and Mars as well as the International Space Station, which narrowly escaped colliding with debris three times in 2020.
As part of the UK's Active Debris Removal mission, which was unveiled last year, a spacecraft will be launched into orbit by 2026. It will demonstrate the capacity of a single spacecraft to remove several pieces of trash when it travels to two defunct UK satellites circling the Earth and drags them back into the atmosphere where they burn up. The UK mission will be the first in the world to target multiple pieces instead of just one since the debris-collecting spacecraft is meant to be left in Earth's orbit and possibly accessible for refuelling in the future to handle more junk. To test potential solutions for cleaning up space debris, the ISS is said to have deployed the first satellite ever earlier in 2018. One of the first initiatives around the globe to address the accumulation of space debris in Low Earth Orbit was the British-built spacecraft called RemoveDEBRIS. Space debris is only anticipated to increase shortly as commercial spacecraft clog the atmosphere in addition to the intensifying rivalry between major world powers. States are ready for the task, so debris reduction may soon turn into a business.